Le politiche dell'Unione europea per gli immigrati nella dimensione regionale e locale : un bilancio dopo Lisbona
Title: Le politiche dell'Unione europea per gli immigrati nella dimensione regionale e locale : un bilancio dopo Lisbona
Author: IANNIELLO SALICETI, Alessandro
Citation: Emanuele ROSSI, Francesca BIONDI DAL MONTE and Massimiliano VRENNA (eds), La governance dell'immigrazione : diritti, politiche e competenze, Bologna : Il Mulino, 2013, Collana del centro di ricerca Wiss, pp. 169-228
Two main ideas have inspired the present paper. First, since the birth of the European Communities EU migration policy has been influenced by the long-lasting dichotomy between “State EU-citizen” versus “non-EU national”. In the period 1999-2000 the Tampere Conclusions and the Nice Charter gave new zest to Brussels-driven migration policy of non-EU nationals. The bunch of rights of non-EU migrants was then extended during the recent years by relevant EC Directives, so that its gap with the set of EU citizenship’s special rights has been reduced. Second, in the institutional EU structure there is no regional (nor local, in the broad sense) decision-making process concerning non-EU nationals. Indeed, in the field of EU migration policy, from the birth of the three European Communities, decision-making has been shaped as an inter-State process, eventually transferred from European capitals to Brussels (EU Executive) and Strasbourg (European Parliament). The concept of the Westphalian States (having priority relations with “their” citizens and inhabitants) therefore remains deeply in-rooted in the establishment of main EU actions and programmes related to migrants, where regional and local powers have a subordinate role of policy-takers. This role is limited to implementing EU mainstream decisions taken in Brussels and Strasbourg. Moreover, in the present Lisbon Treaty only State-centered bodies as National Parliaments have a word to say towards EU legislative proposals, but regional assemblies and the Committee of Regions can still intervene in their advisory capacity under the new Subsidiarity Protocol. The Lisbon Subsidiarity acknowledges the importance of Regions . This can help develop the role of regional and local powers in the EU migration policies. A source of concern is that statistics on EU migrations are mainly collected and processed on a national State-scale, neglecting the local dimension of migration inside each concerned Member State and therefore jeopardizing the paramount importance of migrations phenomena at regional and local level. Scarce perception of solidarity among European municipalities, (for instance the well-known North-South geographic racism or the hidden conflict between East and West migrations in Europe) is another point this paper highlights. This lack of solidarity would hamper the possible implementation of the “EU constitutional patriotism” preached by Habermas into the regional and municipal dimension of migrations. In the worst economic scenario, degenerative regionalism and localism could lead to a policy of intolerance and xenophobia arising from local (regional or municipal) stakeholders against any kind of migration, disregarding the EU or non-EU nationality of migrants.
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