Inequalities by immigrant status in unmet needs for healthcare in Europe : the role of origin, nationality and economic resources
Title: Inequalities by immigrant status in unmet needs for healthcare in Europe : the role of origin, nationality and economic resources
Series/Number: EUI RSCAS; 2016/55; Global Governance Programme-237; Cultural Pluralism
The aim of the research is to assess whether there are inequalities in unmet needs for healthcare between natives and migrants within Europe. We used cross-sectional data from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions 2012. Our dependent variables were perceived unmet needs for medical and dental examination or treatment. Our main independent variable is immigrant status, defined using a combination of country of birth and citizenship (nationals born in the country of residence, reference; European Union-born nationals; non-EU born nationals; EU-born foreigners; non EU-born foreigners). The prevalence ratios of unmet needs according to immigrant status are obtained through sex-stratified robust Poisson regression models, sequentially adjusted by age, health status and socio-economic characteristics. The prevalence of medical unmet needs, adjusted by age and health status, is higher in foreign women, both EU-born and non-EU born, but it is no longer significant after the socioeconomic adjustment. For dental unmet needs, the risk is significantly higher for all foreigners, EU and non EU-born, men and women. Once adjusted for socioeconomic variables significant inequalities persist, although diminished, for both EU-born and non-EU-born foreign men and EU-born foreign women. This study contributes to the discussion of adequate access to healthcare systems and adaptation of services for migrants. While inequalities cannot be detected for naturalised immigrants, the higher risk of unmet need affecting foreigners, even within the EU, deserves further attention.
Subject: Unmet needs; Health inequalities; Migrant health; Europe
Type of Access: openAccess