Exogenous Pressures and Social Policy: Greece and Turkey in Comparative Perspective
Title: Exogenous Pressures and Social Policy: Greece and Turkey in Comparative Perspective
Series/Number: EUI RSCAS; 2007/38; Mediterranean Programme Series
This paper looks at contemporary social policy developments in Greece and Turkey in light of exogenous economic pressures in the period 1980s-2000s. Three sources of exogenous pressures, which allegedly lead to a reduction in social expenditure budgets, are identified: globalization, the process of European integration in its EMU phase and IMF conditionality. Our case studies show that both countries were exposed to impending pressures of economic liberalization, but these exogenous pressures have not resulted in anticipated social policy outcomes. First, social expenditure levels in both countries have not declined; instead, we report rising trends in expenditure. Secondly, and especially in the case of Greece, the 20-year period analyzed shows an expansion in social welfare programmes. Thirdly, those outcomes are mediated by salient domestic political factors, such as democratization and liberalization of the political space. Finally, the positive association between an expanding welfare state and the presence of social democratic/socialist governments, reported in the literature, seems vindicated in our research.
Subject: European integration; Globalization; Greece; Social policy; Turkey
Type of Access: openAccess