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dc.contributor.authorHEROLF, Gunilla
dc.description.abstractDifferentiated integration (DI) is of very low salience in Sweden, and the rare discussions on DI that took place focused on instances of DI rather than on models or mechanisms. As regards the models of DI, Sweden had a negative view of multi-speed, which was seen as detrimental to cohesion within the Union. Multi-end Europe was instead perceived as a useful way to include different countries. Enhanced co-operation, in which some countries pursue a deeper cooperation, was therefore acceptable and Sweden had no problems when others engaged in enhanced co-operation on initiatives that Sweden was critical of. It was also pleased when initiatives that Sweden favoured and which could not find the acceptance of all, could be pursued as enhanced co-operation. It was, however, critical against using opt-outs in areas seen as crucial, like climate, the environment and migration. Without explicitly mentioning the euro as a case of enhanced co-operation this was how Sweden dealt with it. Neither Sweden nor the EU have acted to bring about a formal opt-out. The two EU-critical parties, the Left Party and the Sweden Democrats, have, however, argued for this, most probably because of a wish to make non-membership of the euro permanent. While recognising the right of deeper co-operation among eurozone countries, Sweden saw it as crucial not to create wider political rifts in Europe. With only a few exceptions, such as the euro, all political parties have agreed on the issues under discussion within the context of DI.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis Paper is part of the InDivEU project which has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement number 822304. The content of this document represents only the views of the InDivEU consortium and is its sole responsibility. The European Commission does not accept any responsibility for use that may be made of the information it contains.en
dc.publisherEuropean University Instituteen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesEUI RSCen
dc.relation.ispartofseriesIntegrating Diversity in the European Union (InDivEU) en
dc.subjectDifferentiated integrationen
dc.subjectEnhanced co-operationen
dc.titleThe politics of differentiated integration : what do governments want? Country report : Swedenen
dc.typeWorking Paperen
dc.rights.licenseAttribution 4.0 International*

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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International