Embedded bilateralism, integration theory, and European crisis politics : France, Germany, and the birth of the EU corona recovery fund
Journal of common market studies (JCMS), 2022, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 526-544
KROTZ, Ulrich, SCHRAMM, Lucas, Embedded bilateralism, integration theory, and European crisis politics : France, Germany, and the birth of the EU corona recovery fund, Journal of common market studies (JCMS), 2022, Vol. 60, No. 3, pp. 526-544 - https://hdl.handle.net/1814/74233
Retrieved from Cadmus, EUI Research Repository
What explains the creation of the EU corona recovery fund? Why did the Union agree on a large-scale financial response to the corona pandemic, despite member states' very different immediate reactions to the crisis and their opposing attitudes towards common debt? This article argues for the decisiveness of France and Germany's role within the Union and their tight bilateral political cooperation. The ‘embedded bilateralism’ approach to European integration and EU politics explains how and why France and Germany, starting from different poles, came together and established joint positions, paving the way for an overall European compromise. Focusing on these two countries' particular leadership role advances the theoretical debate about the actors most crucial for driving European integration, especially in times of severe crisis.
Published online: 16 September 2021
Cadmus permanent link: https://hdl.handle.net/1814/74233
Full-text via DOI: 10.1111/jcms.13251
ISSN: 0021-9886; 1468-5965
Sponsorship and Funder information:
This article was published Open Access with the support from the EUI Library through the CRUI - Wiley Transformative Agreement (2020-2023)
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