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dc.contributor.authorREILJAN, Andres
dc.contributor.authorGARZIA, Diego
dc.contributor.authorFERREIRA DA SILVA, Frederico
dc.contributor.authorTRECHSEL, Alexander H.
dc.identifier.citationAmerican political science review, 2023, OnlineFirsten
dc.descriptionPublished online: 29 June 2023en
dc.description.abstractResearch indicates that affective polarization pervades contemporary democracies worldwide. Although some studies identify party leaders as polarizing agents, affective polarization has been predominantly conceptualized as a product of in-/out-party feelings. This study compares levels of party affective polarization (PAP) and leader affective polarization (LAP) cross-nationally, using data from the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems. Applying like–dislike scales and an identical index to both concepts, we reveal that while the two strongly correlate, LAP is systematically lower than PAP. The United States emerges as an exceptional case, being the only country where LAP significantly exceeds PAP. Drawing on regime input/output and institutions as theoretical building blocks, we explore cross-national variations and show that the relative strength of LAP vis-à-vis PAP is increased by presidential regime type, poor government performance, and low party system fragmentation. The findings of this study contribute to the thriving research on affective polarization and personalization of politics.en
dc.publisherCambridge University Pressen
dc.relation.ispartofAmerican political science reviewen
dc.titlePatterns of affective polarization toward parties and leaders across the democratic worlden
dc.rights.licenseAttribution 4.0 International*

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Attribution 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution 4.0 International